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  • Merchant; art critic, poet; professor at the Amsterdam Rijksacademie, 1876-1889; central figure in the emancipation process of the Roman Catholics of the Netherlands. Alberdingk Thijm received no higher education. He initially went into business. In 1842 he began writing art criticism for De Spectator. He married Wilhelmina Anna Sophia Kerst in 1846. In 1852 he founded the Volks-almanak voor Nederlandse katholieken (The People's Almanac for Dutch Catholics), and in 1855 the Catholic periodical Dietsche Warande.
  • Director of the Koninklijk Museum (later Rijksmuseum), Amsterdam. He advised the Baltimore collector Robert Gilmor, Jr. on purchases.
  • Print collector, medical doctor; surgeon. Bierens de Haan was the son of David Bierens de Haan, professor of mathematics and physics at Leiden University, and Johanna Catharina Justina IJssel de Schepper. The young Bierens de Haan attended the Leiden gymnasium and, from 1887 to 1894, he studied medicine at Leiden University. He also received training in hospitals and universities abroad, in particular in Bonn, Vienna, Paris, and London. In those years he began building up his print collection, while visiting the European print rooms.
  • Director of the Amsterdam Rijksprentenkabinet; connoisseur of drawings and prints. Boon studied art history at Amsterdam University, with professor Ferrand W. Hudig (1883-1937), and at the Sorbonne in Paris. He finished his studies at the école du Louvre with a thesis on the relationship between the School of Cologne and Netherlandish painting in the second half of the fifteenth century, Les rapports entre l'école de Cologne et la peinture néerlandaise dans la deuxième moitié du quinzième siècle.
  • Director of the Mauritshuis museum, 1889-1909, connoisseur and art collector. Bredius was raised in a wealthy family. His father was Johannes Jacobus Bredius a director of a powder factory in Amsterdam. His family collected Chinese porcelain and 17th-century Dutch paintings, which Bredius would build upon. His mother died when he was only ten. Early in his career, he intended to become a concert pianist, but realized after three years of study that he would never become an outstanding musician.
  • The van Gogh scholar Jacob-Baart de la Faille studied under Bremmer. Independent art educator and adviser; van Gogh and Dutch artists scholar. Bremmer received his primary education at a boarding school in Roermond and attended high school in Leiden, where his parents owned a hotel (Hotel Rijnland). He also took classes with the painter D. L. Kooreman. In 1889 he left school and enrolled at the Teeken- en Schilderacademie (Academy for Drawing and Painting) in The Hague. He quit after one year and together with some friends he rented a studio in Leiden.
  • Professor of aesthetics and art history (1923-1946) at Nijmegen University. Brom was named after his father, Gerard Bartholomeus Brom, a blacksmith of liturgical objects, who had died before Brom jr. was born. His elder brother, Jan Hendrik, took over his father's firm. Brom, who was raised in a Catholic family, attended the Gymnasium of the Bisschoppelijk College in Roermond. After graduation he began medical studies in 1899 at Utrecht University, but a year later switched to Dutch language and literature.
  • Modernist art historian; partner with Claes Oldenburg in artworks, 1977-2009. Bruggen's father was a medical doctor who held weekly salons for writers and painters at their home where she and her siblings participated. She studied art history at the Rijks University of Groningen, earning a graduate degree in 1967. Bruggen joined the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam the same year as a curator. She worked with conceptual artists Doug Wheeler, Larry Bell, Jan Dibbets and Ger van Elk, marrying around this time.
  • Professor of Art History at the University of Amsterdam (1961-1985); lead art historian for the Rembrandt Research Project (RRP) catalogue raisonné, part of the Stichting Foundation Rembrandt Research Project. Bruyn studied art history at Utrecht University. In 1948, before he finished his study, he was involved in cataloging old paintings in the Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller. In 1950 he was appointed assistant at the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum, where he helped prepare the 1952 exhibition Drie eeuwen portret in Nederland (Three centuries of portraiture in the Netherlands).
  • Professor of Archaeology and Ancient History. Byvanck attended the Gymnasium at The Hague, in which city his father, W.G.C. Byvanck (1848-1925), was librarian at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library). Between 1902 and 1907, he studied classics at Leiden University, and he continued his study in Bonn, Germany, in 1907 and 1908. He was particularly interested in the history of the art of antiquity and made trips to Greece, Egypt and Italy.
  • Director of the Dutch Institute for Art History in Florence; Professor of Art History and Iconology at Utrecht University. Emmens attended the Marnix Gymnasium in Rotterdam. Between 1947 and 1955, he studied art history at Utrecht University where J. G. van Gelder was among his major influences. As a student, he wrote a thesis, Apelles en Apollo, about Dutch poems on seventeenth-century paintings.
  • First author of a Van Gogh catalogue raisonné. De la Faille studied law at Utrecht University and participated in dramatic productions. He earned his doctor's degree in 1913. Instead of working as a lawyer, however, he focused on the contemporary art scene and ethnographic topics, writing for various newspapers and magazines.He also wrote fiction. After reading a 1917 article "Over de literatuur over Van Gogh" (On the literature concerning Van Gogh) by the conservator Herman F. E.
  • Professor of the History of Pre-Classical Antiquity at the University of London, 1949-1954. Frankfort was the eldest son of a Jewish mercantile family. Expected to inherit and run the family business, he was educated at the Hogere Burger School, a commercial high school, instead of the humanities-centered Barlaeus Gymnasium. Friends at the Barlaeus Gymnasium recognized his brilliance, however, and convinced his father to allow him to pursue a university career instead. Frankfurt studied initially Greek at the University of Amsterdam.
  • Netherlandish art scholar and director Kaiser Friedrich Museum. Friedländer was the son of Leopold Friedländer (1832-ca.1880), a Berlin banker, and Helene Noether (Friedländer) (1843-after 1901). He began studying art history in 1891 in Munich, continuing in Florence (under August Schmarsow, and ultimately Leipzig, writing a dissertation on Albrecht Altdorfer under Anton Springer.
  • Rembrandt scholar and authority on Netherlandish art, Director, Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie and professor of art history at Groning University. Gerson's father was a medical doctor in Berlin. His mother, Gertrud Lilienfeld (d. 1943), was the sister of art historian Karl Lilienfeld (q.v.). After initially studying the history of art in Vienna and Berlin, Gerson settled in The Hague in 1928 as an assistant to Hofstede de Groot (q.v.), who his uncle had also assisted.
  • Archaeologist and scholar of ancient art. Groenewegen's father, Hermanus Ysbrand Groenewegen (b. 1862), was a minister and professor of theology at a seminary in Leiden and later a professor of philosophy of religion and ethics at the University of Amsterdam. She studied Greek and Chinese philosophy at the University of Amsterdam where she met Henri Frankfort, another ancientist student a year younger than she. The two became engaged in 1920. In 1921 Groenewegen was granted an M. A. in philosophy and Frankfort one in Netherlands Language and Literature and history.
  • Connoisseur; specialist in Dutch seventeenth-century painting and iconography; Director of the Netherlands Institute for Art History and the Mauritshuis in The Hague. Gudlaugsson was born in Skagen as the son of the Icelandic poet Jonas Gudlaugsson (1887-1916). His mother, Maria Ingenohl, was a Dutch woman raised in Germany. After the death of her husband, she moved with Gudlaugsson, her only child, to Berlin. Gudlaugsson studied art history in Berlin and in Munich. His teachers in Berlin included Oskar Fischel (q.v.) and Wilhelm Pinder (q.v.).
  • Rembrandt specialist; director Amsterdam Historical Museum. Haak was the son of Jurrian Haak and Henrietta van Eek. He attended the Amsterdam Montessori Lyceum between 1938 and 1944. In 1950 he married Annette van Heek. Between 1950 and 1954, he served as assistant to the art dealer D. A. Hoogendijk in Amsterdam. In 1954 Haak began his museum career as assistant in the department of paintings at the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum. In 1963, he obtained the position of chief curator at the Amsterdam Historical Museum, of which he was appointed director in 1975.
  • Art critic; museum director (1947-1963); professor of art history (1952-1968); Van Gogh expert. Hammacher grew up in Middelburg as a sensitive child with strong affinities for music, literature, and painting. He played the violin, painted and drew. In 1917, after graduating from high school, he went to Utrecht to study law, with a view to becoming an attorney, like his uncle and grandfather. One year later, however, he changed his mind and started writing on literature and art.
  • Museum director; art collector. After having spent the first five years of his life in the Dutch East Indies, Hannema was raised in The Hague, where his parents had settled. His mother, Hermine Elise de Stuers, brought him in contact with persons who belonged to the artistic circles in The Hague, including Abraham Bredius (q.v.). After his high school education at the Gymnasium and his military service he studied law at Leiden University, between 1917 and 1919, and subsequently art history at Utrecht University under Willem Vogelsang (q.v.).
  • Professor of art history at the Institute of Fine Arts, NYU and Yale University. He moved permanently to the United States in 1959. While a professor at Yale in the 1970s, Haverkamp helped convert a colleague in the economics department, J. Michael Montias (q.v.), to study the art markets of the Dutch republic. Haverkamp was named John Langeloth Loeb professor emeritus at New York University's Institute of Fine Arts. His students included Ronni Baer, Alan Chong, Stephanie Dickey, Wayne Franits, Thomas Kren, Otto Naumann, Nanette Salomon, Joaneath Spicer and Peter Sutton.
  • Director of the Municipal Museum The Hague, 1948-1950. Hefting attended the Gymnasium in Utrecht. Being in poor health, she left this school prematurely for a cure in Switzerland. She returned to the Netherlands to attend a school for social work in Amsterdam, but when she graduated at age 21, she still was too young for being employed in this sector. She was appointed assistant librarian at the Institute for Art History at Utrecht University. At the invitation of Professor Willem Vogelsang (q.v.), she began to attend his classes.
  • Art historian, art collector, expert and connoisseur; specialized in Dutch seventeenth-century painting. After finishing his Gymnasium education in Coburg, Germany, Hofstede de Groot briefly studied Art History in Leipzig. The death his father, a professor in Groningen, forced Hofstede de Groot to return to Groningen, where he altered his studies to Classics. Later he transferred to Leiden, where he obtained his bachelor's degree. In 1889 he moved to Leipzig and studied Art History, where, encouraged by Abraham Bredius (q.v.), he specialized in Dutch seventeenth century painting.
  • Cataloger of major corpus of Renaissance and Baroque prints. Hollstein was a major dealer in prints and drawings in Berlin before World War II. With the Nazi's rise to power in Germany, Hollstein, a Jew, was forced to take refuge in Amsterdam. He was given a permanent seat in the print room (Rijksprentenkabinet) of the Amsterdam Rijksmuseum, where he set about compiling an index and catalog of known examples of prints. He based his corpus on examples from the collection and his own extensive knowledge and business notes.
  • Art historian and professor in Iconography and Early Christian Art. Hoogewerff attended the Gymnasium in Amersfoort and studied Dutch Language and Literature at the University of Utrecht between 1903 and 1908. In 1912 he received his doctorate, writing his dissertation on Dutch painters working in Italy: Nederlandsche schilders in Italië in de XVIe eeuw. De geschiedenis van het Romanisme. His advisor was Willem Vogelsang (q.v.), the first full professor in art history in the Netherlands (beginning 1907). Hoogewerff became his assistant in 1908. During this time, Otto A.
  • painter; student of Rembrandt; wrote an early account of painters in the Netherlands
  • Art writer, painter, draughtsman, engraver, book illustrator. At the age of nine, Houbraken became an assistant in the shop of the Dordrecht merchant in twine, Johannes de Haan. His patron, being himself trained in painting by Nicolaes Maes (1634-1693), gave the young boy the opportunity to copy drawings and prints. In 1672, Houbraken began his apprenticeship as a painter, first for a short time as a pupil of the landscape painter Willem van Drielenburch (c. 1625-after 1677). In 673-1674, he spent nine months in the studio of the portraitist Jacobus Levecq (1634-1675).
  • Professor of art history and decorative arts museum curator. Hudig was born in Rotterdam where his father and his brother were members of the shipping firm Hudig and Veder. The young Hudig apprenticed at the firm of Ryley and Company in London. Between 1907 and 1913 he served the Hudig and Veder firm in Amsterdam as proxy holder. Fascinated by art and literature, he left the firm at age 30 to study art history in Berlin. For two years he studied under Adolf Goldschmidt (q.v.), August Grisebach (q.v.), and Georg Loeschcke (q.v.).
  • Cultural historian (and champion) of the Middle Ages. Huizing's father, Dirk Huizinga, was a professor of physiology. His mother, Jacoba Tonkens, died when Huizinga was only two. As a child, he witnessed the re-enactment of medieval procession in Groningen, which kindled an interest in history. He attended the municipal Gymnasium, intent on studying history, but, the history teachers were so poor that he changed to linguistics, learning Arabic. He entered the University of Groningen in 1891, studying Sanskrit and literature.
  • Writer of a dictionary of Dutch and Flemish artists; art and book dealer; publisher and poet. Immerzeel was the third son of Johannes Immerzeel, a merchant in food, and Elizabet Steenbus. In his youth, Immerzeel studied drawing and painting with Pieter Hofman (1755-1837), but he had to give up this vocation because of his weak eyes. A self-educated man, he spoke several languages and dedicated himself to music and poetry. In 1795, he served as secretary to the court martial of Dordrecht.

  • Professor of the History of Modern and Contemporary Art. Jaffé was born of Jewish parents in Frankfurt am Main. In 1933, he left Nazi Germany and immigrated to The Netherlands. Shortly before, he had finished high school at the Goethe Gymnasium in Frankfurt. The same year he began studying art history at the University of Amsterdam. Among his teachers was Ferrand W. Hudig (1883-1937) who died the year Jaffé finished his study under the supervision of J. Q. van Regteren Altena (q.v.).
  • Director Centraal Museum Utrecht (1941-1951). De Jonge was born to a noble family. She was the daughter of Willem Adriaan de Jonge and Wilhelmina Naletta van Rappard. Her father died in her early youth. De Jonge attended high school at The Hague, where she had been living since 1894. Between 1904 and 1912, she studied Dutch language and literature at Leiden University. After her graduation she decided to specialize in art history under professor Vogelsang (q.v.) at Utrecht University, where she became Vogelsang's assistant in 1913.
  • One of the chief exponents of the iconographic interpretation of Dutch art emphasizing particularly that many seventeenth-century Dutch genre paintings were intended to have symbolic or emblematic meaning (Simiolus, 1968).
  • Philologist, author of an early art history and exponent of the visual arts. Junius was born into an illustrious Calvinist family. His father, Junius the elder (or Du Jon; 1545-1602), was a French Huguenot theologian who taught in Heidelberg and Leiden. His mother was Joanna (d. 1591), daughter of a Belgian noble, Simon l'Hermite. One uncle, Johan van den Corput (1542-1611), a military engineer and another, Franciscus Gomarus (1563-1641), a theologian was an important figure in the Dutch Reformation. Fanciscus Junius was educated at Leiden in philology, theology and the sciences.
  • Co-editor of the encyclopedia, Winkler Prins van de Kunst. Juynboll belonged to a family of eminent scholars and university professors, particularly in the field of oriental studies. Juynboll, himself, however, after graduating from the Leiden Gymnasium, chose to study art history at Leiden University. Between 1931 and 1934 he was a research assistant at the Leiden University print room.
  • Director of the Rijksbureau voor de Monumentenzorg. Kalf attended the Gymnasium in Amsterdam. Already in his high school period he wrote critical articles on art. Inspired by his father, Martinus Kalf (1847-1898), the editor of the Algemeen Handelsblad, he was interested in literature, including plays, architecture, and arts and crafts. Between 1892 and 1896, Kalf studied Dutch literature and art history at the University of Amsterdam. He frequently published in various periodicals, often displaying a polemic attitude to the cultural and religious climate of his day.
  • First director of the Amsterdam Rijksprentenkabinet; connoisseur of prints. In the footsteps of his father and grandfather, die-cutters at the National Mint in Utrecht, Van der Kellen joined the Mint as an apprentice at the age of fifteen, and worked there until 1876. In this period, he began collecting prints on a large scale. In 1859, Christiaan Kramm (1797-1875) listed him in his biography of artists and described his collection of 6,000 prints, including 4,500 prints of Jan and Casper Luyken.
  • Self educated art historian specializing in Dutch art of the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century. Knoef spent his short life in Amsterdam, where he attended, between 1911 and 1915, the Normaalschool with the view to becoming a school teacher. However, after his time of duty in the army, he found employment in a library, where he began collecting reproductions of art culled from old periodicals. After this short period, he became an employee of the Dutch Railways in 1919.
  • Museum curator; art critic. Knuttel was the son of Willem Knuttel (1854-1921), who was a librarian at the Royal Library in The Hague. His mother, Elize Fabius, was a writer. Knuttel attended the Gymnasium in The Hague and from 1909 to 1913 he took painting classes at the Hague Academy. In 1914 he was appointed an assistant at the Rotterdam Museum Boymans, a position he held for one year. He then decided to study art history. In Germany he enrolled at the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg.
  • Writer of a dictionary of Dutch and Flemish artists, architects and painters. Kramm was the son of a cloth-merchant. At age 13, he was apprenticed to the silversmith, N. van Voorst, in Utrecht. In 1815 he joined the studio of the painter Pieter Christoffel Wonder (1780-1852). Kramm soon became a private teacher in drawing. In 1920 he found employment in the new theater of Utrecht as decorator. Here he developed his skill in architectural design. In 1826 he was appointed director of the architecture department of the municipal schools of Design and Architecture in Utrecht.
  • Professor of History of Architecture at Delft University of Technology; active at the Netherlands Department for the Conservation of Historic Buildings and Sites. Ter Kuile attended the Gymnasium in Deventer. In 1920 and 1921 he studied architecture, decorative arts, and arts and crafts in Haarlem. In 1922, he became a law student at Leiden University. After one year, he switched to history of art and archaeology, in which field he graduated in 1927.
  • Director of the Rijksmuseum. Levie was one of the co-founders of the Rembrandt Research Project with Bob Haak, Jan van Gelder, Jan Emmens, Pieter J. J. Thiel and Joshua Bruyn.
  • Historian of the art of the [former] Dutch East Indies region. Jeanne Haaxman received her earliest art education from her father, Pieter Anne Haaxman, who was a journalist and art critic. Her mother was Janetta Maria Wijnkamp. After her graduation from high school, in 1899, she studied drawing and art history at the Academy in The Hague, where she earned her degree as secondary school teacher. In 1902 she was appointed an anatomical illustrator at the Anatomisch Laboratorium of Leiden University, where she in addition attended art history classes.
  • Modernist scholar. Terpstra's parents, both historians, convinced their daughter to study law. After graduation, however, in 1932 she began studying art history at Utrecht University. Following her second graduation, she worked for a short time at the Hague Gemeentemuseum. She quit her position when she married, and she then moved to Eindhoven. She remained active as a high school teacher of art history.
  • Art collector, cataloger and connoisseur of Netherlandish drawings and prints. Lugt began his career at age twelve in 1899 when he constructed a catalog of the print collection in Rijksprentenkabinet in Amsterdam. By age fifteen, he had written a biography of Rembrandt, illustrated with photographic reproductions and with his own copies of etchings and drawings by Rembrandt (published 1997, Fondation Custodia). Lugt cut short his formal education to become an employee at the auction house Frederik Muller in Amsterdam in 1901.
  • Hals and Dutch Baroque painting scholar. Luns was one of the scholars who accepted the opinion of Abraham Bredius (q.v.) and his opinion that the Christ at Emmaus painting was a Vermeer, later proved to have been painted by forger Han van Meegeren (1889-1947).
  • Dutch dilettante and classicist, co-editor of Algemeene kunst geschiedenis under Frithjof van Thienen (q.v.); contributor to the Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum for this collection at the Hague. Lunsingh Scheurleer created the Plaster-cast Collection at The Hague Academy of Fine Arts as a fulfillment of a childhood dream of a large display museum of plaster casts. In 1928, his friend, L. J. H. Plantenga (1899-1942) was appointed director of the Academy.
  • Director of the Department of Sculpture and Applied Arts, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam (to 1963); professor of the history of applied arts at Leiden University (1964-1981). He entered the Museum in 1943 where he carried out the reinstallation of the collection in the department of sculpture and applied arts, following the post war renovation. This campaign for the Rijksmuseum under director-in-chief David Cornelis Röell (q.v.), was completed in 1952. On that occasion, his revised edition of the catalog of furniture and carpentry appeared, Catalogus van Meubelen en Betimmeringen.
  • Art historian and museum curator. Remmet van Luttervelt studied art history at Leiden University between 1936 and 1941. In 1943, he obtained his doctoral degree at Utrecht University under Professor Willem Vogelsang (q.v.) with a dissertation on country-houses along the Vecht River: De buitenplaatsen aan de Vecht. He published a rewritten version of this study in 1948. His career in the Dutch museum world began as early as 1941, with his appointment as research assistant at the Centraal Museum in Utrecht.
  • Writer on nineteenth-century Dutch painting; painter and art critic. As a young girl, Marius learned painting and drawing with Jan Striening (1827-1903) in Deventer. Around 1880, she became a pupil of August Allebé (1838-1927) at the Amsterdam Academy of Fine Arts. In 1883, she settled in The Hague as a painter. Her works, drawings, watercolors, and paintings, mostly kept in private collections, are not widely known. Letters written by the painter Jan Toorop (1858-1928) to Marius reveal some information on her work.
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